Is there any aircraft in the world that can shoot down an American 5th generation fighter (F-22 and F-35) or a B-2?
Although they aren’t completely stealth, the key feature of these aircraft is low observability. There are several fighter aircraft and one interceptor, with radar capable of detecting and locking the said 5th generation aircraft at practical distances:
MiG-31M/BM Zalson-M, radar lock at 48nm/88km on a 0.0001m2 target.
The MiG-31BM has the most impressive radar, a 1,500kg Zalson-M capable of locking a stealthy Kh-55 cruise missile with RCS of 0.0001m2 at 90km. The RCS size of the F-22 remains classified but various sources claim between 0.3m2 to 0.0001m2 which is unrealistic in my opinion.
The interceptor cannot engage the F-22 in any type of maneuvering dogfight and cannot defeat missiles through out-maneuvering. But able to carry up to 10 long range missiles, it’s guaranteed to force a flight of F-22’s into the defensive and evade at Mach 2.83 after unloading missile rounds. In theory, there is no way the Raptor pilot can get a tone on the MiG-31.
The APG-77 can track a 4m2 target at about 140nm/260km and lock at about 130km. As a rule of thumb, Sorbitsya wing tip ECM pods can reduce locking ranges by 1/3 or roughly 43km.
The stealth coated MiG-31BM has an RCS of 4m2 and while the actual RCS of the F-22 remains classified, it’s certain that the first thing F-22 would be able to lock would be salvos of R-33 or R-37 active homing missiles at Mach 6. With the addition of the F-22’s cruising speed of 1,900kph, the missiles would be closing distance at 2.58km/sec. Due to the time constraints of interception at such speeds, the pilot can designate target(s) for automatic launch. If the Zalson-M radar locks on at 88km, time to impact for the first salvo of missiles would be about 34 seconds if the Raptor pilot fails to break.
The L-203 Gardenya ECM devices in the wingtips (pictured above) are standard on MiG-31 variants but a pair of Sorbitsya ECM pods can alternatively be configured when necessary:
KNIRTI Sorbitsya ECM wing tip pods which are sure to be present for an anti-stealth mission. Although the pod housings are designed to be stored on wingtip rails like those on the Flanker, they can be hard mounted on the MiG-31’s wing tips.
Each ECM pod has phased-array antennas fore and aft. The middle section of the Sorbtsiya houses the receivers, emitters, and techniques generator. Among the jamming techniques employed by the system are noise jamming and terrain bouncing. The electronic phased-array antenna permits detection over a wide frequency range and the direction of more than ten jamming beams against air-to-air and surface-to-air threats.
The installation of the pods on the wingtips has many advantages explained Boris Akinshin, deputy chief designer at KNIRTI.
First, the wide space between each pod allows a better coverage of the environment around the aircraft and better signal localization. In addition, the design of the pod is such that it can listen to and jam a threat simultaneously. For instance, when entering a threat zone, the forward part of the right pod will listen, searching for a ground-to-air threat, while the forward part of the left pod will perform the jamming. Such a division of work can be achieved with the rear part of the pods as well.
Recently developed K-37M to enter service as R-37M features a seeker head with an actively scanned array antenna like the K-77M “absolute killer” the only remaining limitations such a missile can encounter is lack of propulsion/range or lack of agility. However no piloted aircraft can pull enough G’s to outmaneuver these missiles.
- Active radar homing seeker head with AESA antenna
- Can be cold launched at target bearing without radar lock
- The missile’s body features relaxed static stability
The K-37 is also described by Vympel as a statically unstable aerodynamic design, and opting for a statically unstable design required a sophisticated flight-control system, but the missile is considerably more maneuverable.
The R-37M can also be fired in “fire and forget” mode completely independent after launch. It wouldn’t be possible to approach the MiG-31BM close enough to lock on to it, let alone to do so within the AIM-120D’s effective range.
The Su-35S with a slightly less powerful Irbis-E PESA radar is also cross compatible with the MiG-31BM in weaponry with the exception of the R-33, giving it the same advantage in weaponry against the F-22’s AIM-120D’s.
Additionally, the OLS-35 IRST can lock on to the heat emission from a fighter such as the F-22 from 30nm head on to 50nm from behind (55km-100km) a bit shorter than the range envelope of the Irbis-E radar.
But unlike the interceptor, the Su-35S outclasses the F-22 in endgame close-in dogfight.
The following aircraft are at a tactical disadvantage in detection and locking range, but more than likely can score kills against said aircraft or manage a roughly 50% kill ratio.
- Su-30SM, Su-30MKI - N011M BARS Hybrid radar
- MiG-35 - Zhuk-AE AESA
- F-15C APG-63v3 AESA
- Typhoon CAPTOR-E AESA
- Rafael RBE2-AA AESA
- F-16E/F APG-80 AESA
- F/A-18E/F AN/APG-79 AESA
And as a matter of fact, the F-16 and Typhoon have defeated the F-22 in simulated dogfight exercises.
There are also a number of state of the art ground radar stations such as the Voronezh-M and Voronezh-DM working in conjunction with SAM systems like S-400 and S-500 that further substantiate my answer.
Voronezh-M Early Warning Radar System
Radar technology itself is evolving to meet the threat of stealth aircraft; the Chinese announced the Quantum radar which is at it’s infancy:
This is how it works. A quantum radar generates pairs of entangled photons, sending one particle into the air. This enables the system to obtain "critical information about a target, including its shape, location, speed, temperature and even the chemical composition of its paint from returning photons," Stephen Chen explained.
Another evolution is Radio-Optical Phased Arrays (ROFAR) technology which is featured in the Zhuk-AE/FGA-35 modified radar and will be incorporated into a number of separate radar units used by the PAK FA and the 30-kiloWatt Zhuk-ASE series of radars being developed for Flanker variants.